Google Android 2.2 introduced a new feature named Android Cloud to Device Messaging.
Google released an extension for Chrome that made use of this feature on the Android devices.
You can use this extension to send a link that is currently open in Chrome to the Android device.
Now, a similar add-on is now available for Mozilla Firefox but from a third party developer.
The extension is named Send to phone and it also works from the context menu on a web page.
This feature is likely to be further enhanced in the future to improve the connectivity between your smartphone and your desktop browser.